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The Chinese government has a tradition of keeping its watchful eye on all media. Since the rapid growth of the World Wide Web in the 1990s they have constantly invented new ways of censorship to control the worldâ€™s most democratic medium, the Internet, as well. Not everything on the Internet, readily available elsewhere, can be accessed from within China.
It is estimated that some 30,000 Chinese civil servants are monitoring Internet traffic and blocking content that is deemed undesirable. Typing in sensitive keywords such as "democracy", "˜Falun Gong" or "porno" in a search engine results in an error message. Websites of a sensitive nature are being blocked. Internet service providers also (self)censor, as do individuals: many people do not express their real thoughts because they know these will be censored anyway.
No, the same goes for radio, television, films, and books. Internet censorship concerns itself mostly with websites and personal weblogs.
Remarkably, censorship in China is constantly changing. Content that was banned yesterday, may be available today and tomorrow may be banned again. Likewise, it is not always clear what exactly is allowed from one day to the next. Generally speaking, though, one can safely assume that www.freetibet.org will be blocked more often than not.
The Chinese are very resourceful in this. A site about popular movie stars may become a vehicle for discussing delicate political issues. Among Chinese 'nerds' hacking systems are circulating that completely bypass censorship, but you must be knowledgeable enough to download these from non-blocked sites. And then there are weblogs that appear to discuss dogs but are in fact describing the political situation in China.
Good question! Wikipedia has been blocked for ages, but recently - November 2006 - it suddenly was accessible in certain parts of China, be it temporarily. Then all of a sudden it was blocked again.
Yes, of course. But then it is called 'filtering'. You can apply censorship yourself, for instance by installing a children's filter in your browser, in the same way a government may decide it is â€˜better for youâ€™ not to visit certain sites.
Surely you wouldnâ€™t want a censored Internet to become the standard? For 137 million Chinese this is already a reality. That's why you should be botheredâ€¦
Yes, we suppose so, but we have backup systems for this eventuality, and we wonâ€™t explain to you in detail how this works, and you can understand why, can't you?
Yes. Products such as yahoo.cn and google.cn adhere to the rules of official Chinese censorship. In other words, not everything you search for with google.cn is available. These companies argue that if you wish to do business in a particular country, you must obey its rules.
No. The Great Firewall of China is a private initiative by its makers.
Censorship is practiced by various interest groups at various levels: The
government, who regulates the internet by means of an extensive arsenal of
laws and administrative regulations. Foreign, i.e. Western, internet providers
such as google.cn and yahoo.cn who argue that if you wish to do business in
China, you must obey its rules. The Chinese commercial internet providers, who
also have to adhere to government rules. The moderators of Chinese chat rooms
& discussion forums, who block â€˜sensitiveâ€™ postings. The cyber cafes;
everyone who wishes to go online in an internet cafÃ©, is obliged to register
This 'voluntary compliance' with existing regulations can have major consequences. According to 'Reporters Sans FrontiÃ¨res', in 2003 dissident Jiang Lijun was sentenced to four years imprisonment for 'undermining the state'. His conviction was based on a draft email found on his Yahoo page. This draft contained proposals for a more democratic China, which, according to the prosecution, could be regarded as taking part in "subversive activities that aim to undermine the authority of the Communist Party". Yahoo provided the necessary data to find Jiang.
According to state media, by the end of 2006 there were 20.8 million bloggers in China. Blogging, which implies venting your own opinions, has become immensely popular in China. In order to control the phenomenon the government wants blog users to register under their real name. A resourceful Chinese individual created this loophole: www.adoptablog.org. Adopt a Chinese blog, and help keep these bloggers online - anonymously.
Both from within and from outside of China several academics, security
experts and hackers are trying to hack the great firewall. Western academics
came up with ways to circumvent the Great Firewall. Results so far are
promising, but the question remains how long it will take the Chinese
government to come up with counter measures. Another question is if the
average person online can easily apply these methods.
According to 'Reporters Sans Frontières', in September 2006, 50 cyber dissidents were held in Chinese prisons, as far as we know. Prison sentences vary from 3 to 10 years.
THE organisation that deals with internet censorship i.e. internet filtering worldwide.
An initiative by Amnesty to sign a pledge on internet freedom.
Newsgathering not through regular media, but through bloggers, photo
sharing sites, internet worldwide.
An organisation that defends press freedom worldwide and aims to inform those parts of the world where there is no full freedom of the press.
this version 1.0 may report sites as being 'blocked', while there are only technical reasons for their unavailability. The Great Firewall of China's aim is to collaboratively build a community that will be able to visualize Internet censorship in an increasingly accurate way.